At CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, physicists and engineers are probing the fundamental structure of the universe. They use the world's largest and most complex scientific instruments to study the basic constituents of matter - the fundamental particles. The particles are made to collide together at close to the speed of light. The process gives the physicists clues about how the particles interact, and provides insights into the fundamental laws of nature.
The instruments used at CERN are purpose-built particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before the beams are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions.
Founded in 1954, the CERN laboratory sits astride the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva. It was one of Europe's first joint ventures and now has 20 member states.
The name CERN
The name CERN is derived from the acronym for the French "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire", or European Council for Nuclear Research, a provisional body founded in 1952 with the mandate of establishing a world-class fundamental physics research organization in Europe. At that time, pure physics research concentrated on understanding the inside of the atom, hence the word "nuclear".
Today, our understanding of matter goes much deeper than the nucleus, and CERN's main area of research is particle physics – the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the forces acting between them. Because of this, the laboratory operated by CERN is often referred to as the European Laboratory for Particle Physics.
Learn more about CERN
Experiments at CERN generate colossal amounts of data. The Data Centre stores it, and sends it around the world for analysis
There are 10 times more engineers and technicians at CERN than research physicists. Why?
A range of experiments at CERN investigate physics from cosmic rays to supersymmetry
The research programme at CERN covers topics from kaons to cosmic rays, and from the Standard Model to supersymmety
The World Wide Web, invented at CERN in 1989 by British scientist Tim Berners-Lee, has grown to revolutionize communications worldwide
There's more to CERN than the Large Hadron Collider. A series of accelerators work together to push particles to nearly the speed of light
How CERN is governed and organized; its council, member states, and departments
Just as hunters can identify animals from tracks in mud or snow, physicists identify subatomic particles from the traces they leave in detectors
Electric fields and radiofrequency cavities accelerate particles inside accelerators, while powerful magnets focus or steer the particle beams
CERN is run by 20 European member states, but many non-European countries are also involved in different ways